Oligospermia is a male fertility issue characterized by a low sperm count.It is a common finding in male infertility. Often semen with a decreased sperm concentration may also show significant abnormalities in sperm morphology and motility. A fertile man has a sperm count of anywhere from 15 million to over 200 million sperm per milliliter of semen. Anything under 15 million sperm is considered oligospermia, or a low sperm count.
Oligospermia is one of the main causes of male infertility or sub-fertility. Sub-fertility is a reduced ability to achieve a pregnancy while infertility is defined as the complete inability to produce a pregnancy after about one year of unprotected sexual activity.
Semen deficiencies are often labeled as follows:
- Oligospermia or Oligozoospermia – decreased number of spermatozoa in semen
- Aspermia – complete lack of semen
- Hypospermia – reduced seminal volume
- Azoospermia – absence of sperm cells in semen
- Teratospermia – increase in sperm with abnormal morphology
- Asthenozoospermia – reduced sperm motility
Causes of Oligospermia
There are many possible causes of oligospermia, including the following:
- Varicocele – a swelling of the veins that drain the testicle
- Infection that interferes with sperm production or sperm health
- Ejaculation problems such as retrograde ejaculation (ejaculation backward into the bladder)
- Certain medications Eg:alpha blockers
- Genetic conditions (Y chromosome deletions, altered chromosomes)
- Hormonal imbalance (low testosterone, high prolactin levels)
- Undescended testicles
- Medical issues such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes or thyroid disorders
- Heat exposure (hot tubs, baths, saunas)
- Recreational drugs (Alcohol, cocaine, marijuana)
- Anabolic steroid use
- Chronic stress
According to Ayurveda, Anatomical and physiological variation in Shukra Dhatu leads to infertility but there is no direct correlation of oligospermia but we can correlate it with Shukra Kshaya. Even though none of the standard Ayurvedic texts have mentioned about the count of Sperm or Motility of sperm but clearly mentions the quality of semen in the form of ‘Shuddha shukra Lakshana’.
In Ayurveda, healthy semen which is more fertile is described as
“shukram shuklam guru snigdham madhuram bahalam bahu|
ghritamaakshikatailabham sadgarbhaya ||”
There is a seperate branch in ayurveda called Vajikarana chikitsa which deals with the management of defective semen and spermatogenesis along with sexual potencification . Ayurveda treatment includes administration of rasayanas and vajikara dravyas or medicines internally, Panchakarma & Vajikarana therapies for detoxification and rejuvenation along with diet and lifestyle modifications.
In Siddha system of medicine, saint Yugi explained about four types of Maladu(Infertility) in his literature (Yugi Vaidhaya Chinthamani} . Aanmaladu (Male infertility) is one among them and it may be correlated with oligospermia in modern medical science. Siddha medicine is having many formulations to treat oligospermia.
At Haridra we provide best holistic treatment with the help of traditionally prepared ayurveda , siddha medicines, Pancakarma & vajikarana therapies along with diet and lifestyle modifications.